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This project is a joint effort by The Kinsey Institute and its Library to provide resources beyond our walls to scholars, students, and the general public. We recommend reading the first chapter, How to Use This Encyclopedia, to become aware of the conventions used throughout the text and the special features available in the Web version.

All countries from the original volume of the CCIES have now been posted. In the Menu, you can find news about CCIES and the Editors and subscribe to our RSS newsfeed, as well as access other useful information. We will be posting some original Web-only useful features in the near future. The Editors of CCIES invite additions, corrections, and comments.


How to Use This Encyclopedia - viii

Foreword - ix
Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D., A.C.S.

Preface - xi
Timothy Perper, Ph.D.

An Introduction to the Many Meanings of Sexological Knowledge - xiii
Ira L. Reiss, Ph.D.

Last-Minute Developments - 1363
Added by the Editors after the manuscript had been typeset

Global Trends: Some Final
- 1373
Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D., and
Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D.

Contributors and
- 1377

An International Directory of
Sexological Organizations,
Associations, and Institutes
- 1394
Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.

Index - 1405



     Go toA   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   M   N   O   P   R   S   T   U   V
Argentina - 1 up.gif - 283 Bytes

Sophia Kamenetzky, M.D.; Updates by S. Kamenetzky

Australia - 27 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Rosemary Coates, Ph.D.; Updates by R. Coates and Anthony Willmett, Ph.D.

Austria - 42 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Dr. Rotraud A. Perner, L.L.D.; Translated and Redacted by Linda Kneucker; Updates by Linda Kneucker, Raoul Kneucker, and Martin Voracek, Ph.D., M.Sc.

Bahrain - 59 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Julanne McCarthy, M.A., M.S.N.; Updates by the Editors

Botswana - 89 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Godisang Mookodi, Oleosi Ntshebe, and Ian Taylor, Ph.D.

Brazil - 98 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Sérgio Luiz Gonçalves de Freitas, M.D., with Elí Fernandes de Oliveira and Lourenço Stélio Rega, M.Th.; Updates and comments by Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D., and Dra. Sandra Almeida, and Luciane Raibin, M.S.

Bulgaria - 114 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Michail Alexandrov Okoliyski, Ph.D., and Petko Velichkov, M.D.

Canada - 126 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Michael Barrett, Ph.D, Alan King, Ed.D., Joseph Lévy, Ph.D., Eleanor Maticka-Tyndale, Ph.D., Alexander McKay, Ph.D., and Julie Fraser, Ph.D.; Rewritten and updated by the Authors

China - 182 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Fang-fu Ruan, M.D., Ph.D., and M. P. Lau, M.D.; Updates by F. Ruan and Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.; Comments by M. P. Lau

Colombia - 210 Up to Country Alpha Selection

José Manuel Gonzáles, M.A., Rubén Ardila, Ph.D., Pedro Guerrero, M.D., Gloria Penagos, M.D., and Bernardo Useche, Ph.D.; Translated by Claudia Rockmaker, M.S.W., and Luciane Raibin, M.S.; Updates by the Editors; Comment by Luciane Raibin, M.S.

Costa Rica - 227 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Anna Arroba, M.A.

Croatia - 241 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Aleksandar Štulhofer, Ph.D., Vlasta Hiršl-Hecej, M.D., M.A., Željko Mrkšic, Aleksandra Korac, Ph.D., Petra Hoblaj, Ivanka Ivkanec, Maja Mamula, M.A., Hrvoje Tiljak, M.D., Ph.D., Gordana Buljan-Flander, Ph.D., Sanja Sagasta, Gordan Bosanac, Ana Karlovic, and Jadranka Mimica; Updates by the Authors

Cuba - 259 Up to Country Alpha Selection  

Mariela Castro Espín, B.Ed., M.Sc., and María Dolores Córdova Llorca, Ph.D., main authors and coordinators, with Alicia Gónzalez Hernández, Ph.D., Beatriz Castellanos Simons, Ph.D., Natividad Guerrero Borrego, Ph.D., Gloria Ma. A. Torres Cueto, Ph.D., Eddy Abreu Guerra, Ph.D., Beatriz Torres Rodríguez, Ph.D., Caridad T. García Álvarez, M.Sc., Ada Alfonso Rodríguez, M.D., M.Sc., Maricel Rebollar Sánchez, M.Sc., Oscar Díaz Noriega, M.D., M.Sc., Jorge Renato Ibarra Guitart, Ph.D., Sonia Jiménez Berrios, Daimelis Monzón Wat, Jorge Peláez Mendoza, M.D., Mayra Rodríguez Lauzerique, M.Sc., Ofelia Bravo Fernández, M.Sc., Lauren Bardisa Escurra, M.D., Miguel Sosa Marín, M.D., Rosaida Ochoa Soto, M.D., and Leonardo Chacón Asusta

Cyprus - 279 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Part 1: Greek Cyprus: George J. Georgiou, Ph.D., with Alecos Modinos, B.Arch., A.R.I.B.A., Nathaniel Papageorgiou, Laura Papantoniou, M.Sc., M.D., and Nicos Peristianis, Ph.D. (Hons.); Updates by G. J. Georgiou and L. Papantoniou; Part 2: Turkish Cyprus: Kemal Bolayir, M.D., and Serin Kelâmi, B.Sc. (Hons.)

Czech Republic - 320 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Jaroslav Zverina, M.D.; Rewritten and updated by the Author

Denmark - 329 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Christian Graugaard, M.D., Ph.D., with Lene Falgaard Eplov, M.D., Ph.D., Annamaria Giraldi, M.D., Ph.D., Ellids Kristensen, M.D., Else Munck, M.D., Bo Møhl, clinical psychologist, Annette Fuglsang Owens, M.D., Ph.D., Hanne Risør, M.D., and Gerd Winther, clinical sexologist

Egypt - 345 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Bahira Sherif, Ph.D.; Updates by B. Sherif and Hussein Ghanem, M.D.

Estonia - 359 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Elina Haavio-Mannila, Ph.D., Kai Haldre, M.D., and Osmo Kontula, Ph.D.

Finland - 381 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Osmo Kontula, D.Soc.Sci., Ph.D., and Elina Haavio-Mannila, Ph.D.; Updates by O. Kontula and E. Haavio-Mannila

France - 412 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Michel Meignant, Ph.D., chapter coordinator, with Pierre Dalens, M.D., Charles Gellman, M.D., Robert Gellman, M.D., Claire Gellman-Barroux, Ph.D., Serge Ginger, Laurent Malterre, and France Paramelle; Translated by Genevieve Parent, M.A.; Redacted by Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.; Comment by Timothy Perper, Ph.D.; Updates by the Editors

French Polynesia - 431 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Anne Bolin, Ph.D.; Updates by A. Bolin and the Editors

Germany - 450 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Rudiger Lautmann, Ph.D., and Kurt Starke, Ph.D.; Updates by Jakob Pastoetter, Ph.D., and Hartmut A. G. Bosinski,, and the Editor

Ghana - 467 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Augustine Ankomah, Ph.D.; Updates by Beldina Opiyo-Omolo, B.Sc.

Greece - 479 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Dimosthenis Agrafiotis, Ph.D., Elli Ioannidi, Ph.D., and Panagiota Mandi, M.Sc.; Rewritten and updated in December 2002 by the Authors

Hong Kong - 489 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Emil Man-lun Ng, M.D., and Joyce L. C. Ma, Ph.D.; Updates by M. P. Lau, M.D., and Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.

Iceland - 503 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Sóley S. Bender, R.N., B.S.N., M.S., Coordinator, with Sigrún Júliíusdóttir, Ph.D., Thorvaldur Kristinsson, Haraldur Briem, M.D., and Gudrún Jónsdóttir, Ph.D.; Updates by the Editors

India - 516 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Jayaji Krishna Nath, M.D., and Vishwarath R. Nayar; Updates by Karen Pechilis-Prentiss, Ph.D., Aparna Kadari, B.A., M.B.A., and Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.

Indonesia - 533 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Wimpie I. Pangkahila, M.D., Ph.D. (Part 1); Ramsey Elkholy, Ph.D. (cand.) (Part 2); Updates by Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.

Iran - 554 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Paula E. Drew, Ph.D.; Updates and comments by Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.; Comments by F. A. Sadeghpour

Ireland - 569 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Thomas Phelim Kelly, M.B.; Updates by Harry A. Walsh, Ed.D., and the Editors

Israel - 581 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Ronny A. Shtarkshall, Ph.D., and Minah Zemach, Ph.D.; Updates by R. A. Shtarkshall and M. Zemach

Italy - 620 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Bruno P. F. Wanrooij, Ph.D.; Updates by B. P. F. Wanrooij

Japan - 636 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Yoshiro Hatano, Ph.D., and Tsuguo Shimazaki; Updates and comments by Yoshimi Kaji, M.A., Timothy Perper, Ph.D., and Martha Cornog, M.S., M.A., and Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D.

Kenya - 679 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Norbert Brockman, Ph.D.; Updates by Paul Mwangi Kariuki and Beldina Opiyo-Omolo, B.Sc.

Mexico - 692 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Eusebio Rubio, Ph.D.; Updates by the Editors

Morocco - 703 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Nadia Kadiri, M.D., and Abderrazak Moussaïd, M.D., with Abdelkrim Tirraf, M.D., and Abdallah Jadid, M.D.; Translated by Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D., and Dra. Sandra Almeida; Comments by Elaine Hatfield, Ph.D., and Richard Rapson, Ph.D.; Updates by the Editors

Nepal - 714 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Elizabeth Schroeder, M.S.W.

Netherlands - 725 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Jelto J. Drenth, Ph.D., and A. Koos Slob, Ph.D.; Updates by the Editors

Nigeria - 752 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Uwem Edimo Esiet, M.B., B.S., M.P.H., M.I.L.D., chapter coordinator, with Christine Olunfinke Adebajo, Ph.D., R.N., H.D.H.A., Mairo Victoria Bello, Rakiya Booth, M.B.B.S., F.W.A.C.P., Imo I. Esiet, B.Sc, LL.B., B.L., Nike Esiet, B.Sc., M.P.H. (Harvard), Foyin Oyebola, B.Sc., M.A., and Bilkisu Yusuf, B.Sc., M.A., M.N.I.; Updates by Beldina Opiyo-Omolo, B.Sc.

Norway - 781 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Elsa Almås, Cand. Psychol., and Esben Esther Pirelli Benestad, M.D.; Updates by E. Almås and E. E. Pirelli Benestad

Outer Space and Antarctica - 795 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D.; Updates and new material by R. J. Noonan

Papua New Guinea - 813 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Shirley Oliver-Miller; Comments by Edgar Gregerson, Ph.D.

Philippines - 824 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Jose Florante J. Leyson, M.D.; Updates by J. F. J. Leyson

Poland - 846 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Anna Sierzpowska-Ketner, M.D., Ph.D.; Updates by the Editors

Portugal - 856 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Nuno Nodin, M.A., with Sara Moreira, and Ana Margarida Ourô, M.A.; Updates by N. Nodin

Puerto Rico - 877 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Luis Montesinos, Ph.D., and Juan Preciado, Ph.D.; Redacted and updated by Felix M. Velázquez-Soto, M.A., and Glorivee Rosario-Pérez, Ph.D., and Carmen Rios

Russia - 888 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Igor S. Kon, Ph.D.; Updates by I. S. Kon

South Africa - 909 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Lionel John Nicholas, Ph.D., and Priscilla Sandra Daniels, M.S. (Part 1); Mervyn Bernard Hurwitz, M.D. (Part 2); Updates by L. J. Nicholas, Ph.D.

South Korea - 933 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Hyung-Ki Choi, M.D., Ph.D., and Huso Yi, Ph.D. (cand.), with Ji-Kan Ryu, M.D., Koon Ho Rha, M.D., and Woong Hee Lee, M.D.; Redacted with additional information and updated as of March 2003 by Huso Yi, Ph.D. (cand.), with additional information by Yung-Chung Kim, Ki-Nam Chin, Pilwha Chang, Whasoon Byun, and Jungim Hwang

Spain - 960 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Jose Antonio Nieto, Ph.D. (coordinator), with Jose Antonio Carrobles, Ph.D., Manuel Delgado Ruiz, Ph.D., Felix Lopez Sanchez, Ph.D., Virginia Maquieira D’Angelo, Ph.L.D., Josep-Vicent Marques, Ph.D., Bernardo Moreno Jimenez, Ph.D., Raquel Osborne Verdugo, Ph.D., Carmela Sanz Rueda, Ph.D., and Carmelo Vazquez Valverde, Ph.D.; Translated by Laura Berman, Ph.D., and Jose Nanin, M.A.; Updates by Laura Berman, Ph.D., Jose Nanin, M.A., and the Editors

Sri Lanka - 972 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Victor C. de Munck, Ph.D.; Comments by Patricia Weerakoon, Ph.D.

Sweden - 984 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Jan E. Trost, Ph.D., with Mai-Briht Bergstrom-Walan, Ph.D.; Updates by the Editors

Switzerland - 995 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Prof. Johannes Bitzer, M.D., Ph.D., Judith Alder, Ph.D., Prof. Dr. Udo Rauchfleisch Ph.D., Sibil Tschudin, M.D., Elizabeth Zemp, M.D., and Ulrike Kostka

Tanzania - 1009 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Philip Setel, Eleuther Mwageni, Namsifu Mndeme, and Yusuf Hemed; Additional comments by Beldina Opiyo-Omolo, B.Sc.

Thailand - 1021 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Kittiwut Jod Taywaditep, Ph.D., Eli Coleman, Ph.D., and Pacharin Dumronggittigule, M.Sc.; Updates by K. J. Taywaditep, Ryan Bishop, Ph.D., and Lillian S. Robinson, Ph.D.

Turkey - 1054 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Hamdullah Aydin, M.D., and Zeynep Gülçat, Ph.D.; Rewritten and updated in 2003 by H. Aydin and Z. Gülçat

Ukraine - 1072 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Tamara V. Hovorun, Ph.D., and Borys M. Vornyk, Ph.D. (Medicine); Rewritten and updated in 2003 by T. V. Hovorun and B. M. Vornyk

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - 1093 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Kevan R. Wylie, M.B., Ch.B., M.Med.Sc., M.R.C.Psych., D.S.M., chapter coordinator and contributor, with Anthony Bains, B.A., Tina Ball, Ph.D., Patricia Barnes, M.A., CQSW, BASMT (Accred.), Rohan Collier, Ph.D., Jane Craig, M.B., MRCP (UK), Linda Delany, L.L.B., M.Jur., Julia Field, B.A., Danya Glaser, MBBS, D.Ch., FRCPsych., Peter Greenhouse, M.A., MRCOG, MFFP, Mary Griffin, M.B., M.Sc., MFFP, Margot Huish, B.A., BASMT (Accred.), Anne M. Johnson, M.A., M.Sc., M.D., MRCGP, FFPAM, George Kinghorn, M.D., FRCP, Helen Mott, B.A. (Hons.), Paula Nicolson, Ph.D., Jane Read, B.A. (Hons.), UKCP, Fran Reader, FRCOG, MFFP, BASMT (Accred.), Gwyneth Sampson, DPM, MRCPsych., Peter Selman, DPSA, Ph.D., José von Bühler, R.M.N., Dip.H.S., Jane Wadsworth, B.Sc., M.Sc., Kaye Wellings, M.A., M.Sc., and Stephen Whittle, Ph.D.; Extensive updates and some sections rewritten by the original authors as noted in the text

United States of America - 1127 Up to Country Alpha Selection

David L. Weis, Ph.D., and Patricia Barthalow Koch, Ph.D., editors and contributors, with other contributions by Diane Baker, M.A., Ph.D.; Sandy Bargainnier, Ed.D.; Sarah C. Conklin, Ph.D.; Martha Cornog, M.A., M.S.; Richard Cross, M.D.; Marilyn Fithian, Ph.D.; Jeannie Forrest, M.A.; Andrew D. Forsythe, M.S.; Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D., A.C.S.; Barbara Garris, M.A.; Patricia Goodson, Ph.D.; William E. Hartmann, Ph.D.; Robert O. Hawkins, Jr., Ph.D.; Linda L. Hendrixson, Ph.D.; Barrie J. Highby, Ph.D.; Ariadne (Ari) Kane, Ed.D.; Sharon E. King, M.S.Ed.; Robert Morgan Lawrence, D.C.; Brenda Love; Charlene L. Muehlenhard, Ph.D.; Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D.; Miguel A. Pérez, Ph.D.; Timothy Perper, Ph.D.; Helda L. Pinzón-Pérez, Ph.D.; Carol Queen, Ph.D.; Herbert P. Samuels, Ph.D.; Julian Slowinski, Psy.D.; William Stackhouse, Ph.D.; William R. Stayton, Th.D.; and Mitchell S. Tepper, M.P.H.
         Updates coordinated by Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D., and Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D., with comments and updates by Mark O. Bigler, Ph.D., Walter Bockting, Ph.D., Peggy Clarke, M.P.H., Sarah C. Conklin, Ph.D., Al Cooper, Ph.D., Martha Cornog, M.A., M.S., Susan Dudley, Ph.D., Warren Farrell, Ph.D., James R. Fleckenstein, Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D., Patricia Goodson, Ph.D., Erica Goodstone, Ph.D., Karen Allyn Gordon, M.P.H., Ph.D. (cand.), Eric Griffin-Shelley, Ph.D., Robert W. Hatfield, Ph.D., Loraine Hutchins, Ph.D., Michael Hyde, M.F.A., Ph.D. (cand.), Ariadne (Ari) Kane, Ed.D., Patricia Barthalow Koch, Ph.D., John Money, Ph.D., Charlene L. Muehlenhard, Ph.D., Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D., Miguel A. Pérez, Ph.D., Helda L. Pinzón-Pérez, Ph.D., William Prendergast, Ph.D., Ruth Rubenstein, Ph.D., Herbert P. Samuels, Ph.D., William Taverner, M.A., David L. Weis, Ph.D., C. Christine Wheeler, Ph.D., and Walter Williams, Ph.D.

Vietnam - 1337 Up to Country Alpha Selection

Jakob Pastoetter, Ph.D.; Updates by J. Pastoetter

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Additional Information

A Note for Researchers

The numbers included in the chapter titles in the Contents above refer to the page numbers in the print edition of the CCIES. For the convenience of researchers, Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files are available for download at the top of the individual HTML chapters linked from the Contents, which reflect the actual pagination of the book. This will allow scholarly writers to cite actual page numbers in the printed book for quoted material, as well as its availability on the Web and the URL if desired. See also How to Use This Encyclopedia for other helpful information.

Main website URL:      Retrieved:  .

Reader Submissions

Readers of CCIES at the Kinsey Institute are invited to submit important news items or reports of findings of new sex research being done in any of the countries covered here, or any other country in the world. We will try to update and expand this unique reference work with your help. Send items in English if possible, with appropriate citations, to Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D., CCIES Editor, Health and Physical Education Department, Fashion Institute of Technology, 27th Street and 7th Avenue, New York, NY 10001 USA, or by email to Corrections and comments are also welcome. Submissions may also be made via the Editors’ blog at SexQuest. Colleagues who would like to submit or coordinate a chapter on their country (or who would like to submit a new section or authoritative commentary or alternative perspectives to an existing country) should contact the editors by email.

More Information Online

Continuum International Publishing Group (New York and London)
The publishers of the Encyclopedia.

CCIES on the Web at
Contains supplementary information, corrections, and links to many of the sites referenced in these chapters, and the Editors’ blog about the issues discussed in the CCIES and related topics.

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Bibliographical Data

Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality (2004)

Robert T. Francoeur, Ph.D., and Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D., Editors
The Continuum International Publishing Group, New York and London
1,436 pp., 7¾" x 11", Hardbound, $300, ISBN: 0-8264-1488-5 ISBN 0826414885


The Continuum Complete International Encyclopeda of Sexuality (2004) may be ordered through a number of sources, including and the Continuum International Publishing Group.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

The Continuum complete international encyclopedia of sexuality / edited
by Robert T. Francoeur ; Raymond J. Noonan ; associate editors, Martha
Cornog . . . [et al.].
  p. cm.
A completely updated one-volume edition of the 4-volume International
encyclopedia of sexuality (published 1997-2001), covering more than 60
countries and places, 15 not previously included.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-8264-1488-5 (hardcover : alk. paper)
1. Sex—Encyclopedias. 2. Sex customs—Encyclopedias. I. Title:
Complete international encyclopedia of sexuality. II. Francoeur, Robert
T. III. Noonan, Raymond J. IV. Cornog, Martha. V. International
encyclopedia of sexuality.
HQ21.I68 2003
306.7´03—dc21                                                                2003006391